The induced fundamental group homomorphism of a composition of continuous maps is the same as the composition of their induced homomorphisms/Statement

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Let [ilmath](X,\mathcal{ J })[/ilmath], [ilmath](Y,\mathcal{ K })[/ilmath] and [ilmath](Z,\mathcal{ H })[/ilmath] be topological spaces, let [ilmath]p\in X[/ilmath] be any fixed point (to act as a base point for the fundamental group [ilmath]\pi_1(X,p)[/ilmath]) and let [ilmath]\varphi:X\rightarrow Y[/ilmath] and [ilmath]\psi:Y\rightarrow Z[/ilmath] be continuous maps. Then[1]:

Note that both of these maps have the form [ilmath]\big(:\pi_1(X,p)\rightarrow\pi_1(Z,\psi(\varphi(p))\big)[/ilmath]


  1. Introduction to Topological Manifolds - John M. Lee